This page provides an overview of the Satellites in the Galileo Constellation. Technical parameters of the indivdual satellites and related conventions applied within the MGEX project are summarized in the Spacecraft Characteristics section. Furthermore, a list of Events of interest for the Galileo data processing is given. Information on the GIOVE satellites is given on a separate page.
Int. Sat. ID
|IOV-1, Galileo PFM||E101||2011-060A||37846||E11||Slot B05|
|IOV-2, Galileo FM2||E102||2011-060B||37847||E12||Slot B06|
|IOV-3, Galileo FM3||E103||2012-055A||38857||E19||Slot C04|
|IOV-4, Galileo FM4||E104||2012-055B||38858||E20||Slot C05|
|FOC-1||E201||2014-050A||40128||E18||Orbit injection failure (i=49.7° e=0.23)|
|FOC-2||E202||2014-050B||40129||E14||Orbit injection failure (i=49.7° e=0.23)|
Metadata for Galileo IOV and FOC satellites including attitude law, mass, center of mass, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, geometry and optical properties, as well as satellite group delays are provided by the European GNSS Service Center. Additional information on the FOC satellites is given in the OHB Galileo Space Segment Brochure.
|Launch mass||700 kg||733 kg|
|Body size||2.61 m x 1.15 m x 1.15 m||2.53 m x 1.20 m x 1.10 m|
|Solar array size||2 x 2 x 2.5 m x 1.1 m||2 x 2 x 2.5 m x 1.1 m|
|Span width||14.5 m||14.7 m|
|SRP acceleration||113 nm/s2||
107 nm/s2 (FOC-1/2)
114 nm/s2 (others)
The Galileo-IOV/FOC spacecraft are equipped with broadband GNSS antennas for the E1, E5ab and E6 frequency bands and with a laser retroreflector array (LRA) for satellite laser ranging.
Fig. 1 Spacecraft reference system and sensor location for the Galileo IOV (left), and Galileo FOC (right) satellites. Blue arrows and labels indicate the reference system adopted by the IGS, while the manufacturer-specific systems are illustrated in red. During nominal yaw-steering, the Sun is always confined to the +xIGS-hemisphere. Reproduced from DOI 10.1016/j.asr.2015.06.019 with permission of Elsevier; satellite images courtesy ESA.
Satellite Antenna Phase Center
Phase center offsets (PCOs) and variations (PCVs) of the GNSS antenna of the Galileo IOV and FOC satellites were published by the European GNSS Service Center in in December 2016 and October 2017, respectively. These PCOs and PCVs for the IOV satellites are included in the IGS14 ANTEX file since GPS week 1972. The update of the PCOs of the Galileo FOC satellites and the inclusion of the FOC PCVs are pending.
All values refer to the IGS-specific spacecraft coordinate system illustrated in blue in Fig. 1. The spacecraft coordinate system is aligned with the main body axes and originates near the anti-Earth panel. By convention of the IGS
- the +zIGS-axis is oriented along the boresight direction of the antenna,
- the yIGS-axis is parallel to the rotation axis of the solar panels and the positive yIGS-direction is defined through the adopted +xIGS-direction,
- the +xIGS-axis completes a right handed system and is chosen such that the Sun is always located in the +xIGS hemisphere during nominal yaw-steering.
Due to an initial lack of publicly available measured antenna phase center offsets conventional values of (x,y,z)IGS=(-0.2 m, 0.0 m, +0.6 m) and (x,y,z)IGS=(+0.15 m, 0.0 m, +1.0 m) were recommended for orbit and clock determination of the Galileo-IOV and -FOC satellites, respectively, until GPS week 1914. These values provided a first estimate of the actual phase center relative to the center of mass based on the images and models or coarse phase center estimates.
In 2016, GFZ and DLR estimated PCOs for the Galileo IOV and FOC satellites
based on the ionosphere-free linear combination of E1 and E5a . These
values are included in igs08.atx since GPS week 1915 . The switch dates
of the individual ACs are given in the following table:
For the modelling of satellite laser ranging measurements nominal coordinates of the effective LRA reflection point have been specified by ESA as part of the ILRS mission support request, see .
Similar to the GPS satellites, the attitude of the Galileo satellites is actively controlled to orient the +zIGS axis towards the Earth. At the same time the spacecraft is continuously rotated about this axis to maintain the yIGS-axis perpendicular to the plane made up by the Sun, Earth, and satellite. The +xIGS-panel is always sunlit, while the -xIGS-panel is oriented towards "deep space". Details of the IOV attitude control during noon- and midnight turns in periods when the Sun is close to the orbital plane are described in  although differing from the information published on the GSA webpage.
Transmit PowerTransmit power of GNSS satellites is required for the computation of antenna thrust. The equivalent isotropic radiation power (EIRP) was measured by DLR with it's 30 m dish antenna. Values between 95 and 160 W were obtained for the IOV satellites for different time periods. The FOC satellites have a significantly higher mean transmit power of 265 W, for details see .
References Galileo-101 and -102 ILRS SLR Mission Support Request Form (2011/06)
 ILRS Galileo IOV Center of Mass Information
 Konrad A., Fischer H.-D., Müller C., Oesterlin W. (2007) "Attitude & orbit control system for Galileo IOV"; 17th IFAC Symposium on Automatic Control in Aerospace, DOI 10.3182/20070625-5-FR-2916.00006
 Steigenberger P., Fritsche M., Dach R., Schmid R., Montenbruck O., Uhlemann M., Prange L. (2016) "Estimation of satellite antenna phase center offsets for Galileo", Journal of Geodesy 90(8):773-785, DOI 10.1007/s00190-016-0909-6
 Schmid R. "igs08_1915.atx: Updated phase center offsets for Galileo satellites", IGSMAIL-7356
 Steigenberger P., Thoelert S., Montenbruck O. (2017) "GNSS Satellite Transmit Power and its Impact on Orbit Determination", Journal of Geodesy, DOI 10.1007/s00190-017-1082-2
List of events before 2017.
|2017/03/01||Afternoon||FOC-5||E24||Start of transmission outage||CONGO/MGEX monitoring, NAGU 2017006|
|2017/03/02||10:40||FOC-7||E07||Start of E1 and E5 signal transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/03/03||09:44||FOC-14||E05||Start of E1 and E5 signal transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/03/05||Morning||FOC-4||E24||End of transmission outage||CONGO/MGEX monitoring, NAGU 2017007|
|2017/03/06||Morning||FOC-7||E07||End of signal transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/03/06||Noon||FOC-14||E05||End of signal transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/03/11||Morning||FOC-7||E07||Restart of signal transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/03/12||Morning||FOC-14||E05||Restart of signal transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/03/19||Morning||FOC-14||E05||Few hours transmission outage||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/03/21||Morning||FOC-7||E07||Few hours transmission outage||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/03/28||08:40||FOC-7||E07||Start of broacast message transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/04/05||05:50||FOC-14||E05||Start of broacast message transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/04/22||Morning||FOC-12||E03||Start of E1 and E5 signal transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/04/22||Evening||FOC-13||E04||Start of E1 and E5 signal transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/04/24||Evening||FOC-12||E03||End of signal transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/04/25||Afternoon||FOC-13||E04||End of signal transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/04/29||Morning||FOC-13||E04||Restart of signal transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/04/29||Morning||FOC-13||E04||Short transmission outage||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/05/01||Morning||FOC-12||E03||Restart of signal transmission||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/05/01||Morning||FOC-12||E03||Short transmission outage||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/05/01||Evening||FOC-13||E04||Start of transmission outage||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/05/02||Morning||FOC-13||E04||End of transmission outage||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/05/03||Evening||FOC-12||E03||Start of transmission outage||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/05/04||Morning||FOC-12||E03||End of transmission outage||CONGO/MGEX monitoring|
|2017/05/14||15:50||ALL||ALL||Navigation messages not refreshed for all satellites||NAGU 2017015|
|2017/05/16||12:44||ALL||ALL||Navigation messages refreshed for all satellites||NAGU 2017016|
|2017/05/29||18:23||FOC-7||E07||Satellite declared usable||NAGU 2017018|
|2017/05/30||13:15||FOC-14||E05||Satellite declared usable||NAGU 2017017|
|2017/06/16||Noon||FOC-6||E30||Short transmission outage||CONGO/MGEX monitoring, NAGU 2017023|
|2017/12/08||Morning||FOC-4||E22||Start of transmission outage due to constellation management||CONGO/MGEX monitoring, NAGU 2017045|